Carbon footprint of shipping industry

How much carbon the shipping industry emits every year? What measures are being taken to reduce carbon emissions in the shipping industry?

The shipping industry emits around 1 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually, which is about 2-3% of global emissions. To reduce carbon emissions, the industry is focusing on:

  1. Energy efficiency: Implementing technologies and operational measures to improve fuel efficiency and reduce fuel consumption.
  2. Alternative fuels: Adopting biofuels, hydrogen, and ammonia as cleaner alternatives to conventional fossil fuels.
  3. Electrification: Developing hybrid and fully electric ships for shorter distances and coastal shipping routes.
  4. Sails and wind-assist technologies: Harnessing wind power to reduce fuel consumption and emissions through sails, rotors, and kites.
  5. Speed reduction: Slowing down ships to reduce fuel consumption and corresponding emissions.
  6. International regulations: The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set a goal to reduce the industry’s greenhouse gas emissions by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 levels.

I think the last two points are currently very important

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The European Commission has strategies related to this issue. The strategy consists of 3 consecutive steps:

  1. Monitoring, reporting and verification of CO2 emissions from large ships using EU ports
  2. Greenhouse gas reduction targets for the maritime transport sector
  3. Further measures, including market-based measures, in the medium to long term.

Shipping industry is responsible for 3% of global carbon emissions - How the shipping industry is now sailing towards net-zero | World Economic Forum

One way that I heard recently is Just-in-time arrival concept. Vessels often sails to port to reach asap, however, they generally wait due to congestion. If they reduce their speed to reach just-in-time that would lead to less fuel usage; hence, less emissions